10 Advanced Selenium WebDriver Techniques Every Tester Should Know

10 Advanced Selenium WebDriver Techniques Every Tester Should Know

Introduction

Manual testing is a technique to identify bugs and issues in any application. However, due to many shortcomings of manual testing, such as repetitive and monotonous processes, Jason Huggins automated the testing process. He created a JavaScript program named the JavaScript Test Runner to automate the testing process. In 2004, the program was renamed as Selenium. Selenium automation testing is an open-source automation testing framework that supports automation across different browsers and programming languages.

One of the advantages of Selenium WebDriver techniques compared to other web automation tools is that it supports many programming languages such as Python, Java, C#, and PHP. If you are new to Selenium WebDriver techniques, then this blog will give you all ideas on ten advanced Selenium WebDriver techniques to perform test automation. It has a diverse range of functionalities and features to enhance your test automation efforts.

Through this blog, you will learn about some interesting features of the Selenium WebDriver techniques, such as handling alerts, frames, working with dropdowns, and so on. It will give you clarity on why you should choose Selenium WebDriver over other automation testing tools. This blog post will give you details on ten advanced Selenium techniques that you can use for test automation. These techniques will help you in developing scalable test cases. 

What is Selenium WebDriver?

Selenium WebDriver is a framework that allows for automated web application testing across multiple browsers. It is one of the most important components of the Selenium tool’s suite. Selenium is not a single automation testing tool. Instead, it consists of multiple tools. Each of them has a different role in Selenium automation testing. The Selenium WebDriver was first introduced as one of the parts of Selenium v2.0.

The Selenium WebDriver has addressed many limitations found in Selenium RC, so it can be called an advancement over Selenium RC. In this Selenium WebDriver, the test scripts can run in any programming language and in any modern web browser. To be able to learn more about the Selenium automation testing tool, you should have good knowledge of any programming language. 

10 Advanced Selenium WebDriver techniques every tester should know

The cutting-edge Selenium WebDriver techniques have the capability to address failure in test execution. Each of these techniques can support you in developing well-designed cases. 

Implicit wait and explicit wait

One of the advanced features of the Selenium WebDriver techniques is the Selenium wait for commands that let the automation execution wait for some time before initiating the normal execution. During automated testing of websites, testers may often experience problems such as time lag while loading web elements. The wait command can help you troubleshoot these issues. During Selenium automation testing, various elements may load at regular intervals. It may disrupt identifying certain elements, and the Selenium wait commands can resolve this issue.  

The explicit wait is a command that is used to stop executing the script for a specified period under a specific condition. Thus, with the explicit wait feature, you can synchronize the browser and test the execution script.           

In contrast, implicit wait is a condition-less wait command through which testers can tell Selenium to wait for a certain period of time before executing a test. This feature allows you to specify a time duration until which the WebDriver should wait before throwing an execution. 

Handling frames and windows:   

The Selenium WebDriver provides you with techniques to switch between frames and windows. Testers can use the SwitchTo() command to switch between frames along with the code samples. It enables the browser to switch between multiple frames. Similar to the above method, the getWindowHandles () method can allow workers to switch between multiple browsers. This method provides testers with a unique ID of the current window.

For instance, you might be navigating the homepage of a website. It is the parent window. By using the getWindow Handle commands, testers can open multiple child windows and navigate back to the final window handle. 

Capturing screenshots

During the test execution, capturing screenshots can help testers in debugging of software application. The Selenium WebDrivers offer three APIs through which you can take a screenshot to verify test results. The lists of three APIs through which you can capture screenshots are:

1.       save_screenshot

2.       Get_Screenshot_as_file

3.       Get_screenshot_as_png

The first two API is useful in saving the screen of the current window in a png file, whereas the last one can help in capturing a screenshot in a binary format.

Logging and reporting

Logging and reporting are useful elements of Selenium WebDriver. Logging can be useful in locating the failing test in case of failure in many test suites. Some of the popular logs in advanced Selenium WebDriver are debugging, error, info, and warning. However, many unnecessary logs can also delay test execution. Thus, logging with level error is useful in evaluating the cause of failure.

In addition, reporting in Selenium WebDriver techniques can support you in determining the status of tests. These reports can help testers track the progression of suites and their corresponding results. Some of the advantages of reporting are a decrease in time needed to maintain data and an improvement in test output readability. Hence, without the logging and reporting techniques, automation testing cannot work using Selenium. 

Page Object Model (POM)

The POM is a design pattern or Web UI automation pattern that helps in maintaining the test. In this way, it controls code duplication and boosts test maintenance. In POM, automation scripts do not interact with the web elements of a page directly. Instead, a new page class exists along with test codes and control. Thus, the use of POM in Selenium WebDriver techniques decreases the size of the code. The technique works as a unified object archive is created for controls on a web page. 

In POM, each web page is considered a class file. Each of these class files contains corresponding web page elements. By using these elements, testers can easily perform operations on the website which is being tested. Some of the advantages of the POM are listed below:

  • Ease test maintenance
  • Reusability of codes
  • Readability and reliability of scripts

To conclude, the POM works by improving test maintenance, enhancing code reusability, minimizing code changes, and simplifying the visuals of a web page. 

Data-driven testing

One of the benefits of Selenium WebDriver is that it allows you to implement data-driven testing. When a tester engages in website testing, they test against multiple datasets, including browsers, devices, and different operating systems. Hard coding of test values is not a solution, and it leads to repetition of the test codes.

Parameterization is one solution to promote data-driven testing with Selenium. This is done by the execution of test cases against different data sets. With an extensive data set, the test coverage improves, and the product quality enhances with the above advanced Selenium technique. 

Handling alerts and pop-ups

One of the advanced techniques of the Selenium WebDriver is that it can handle alerts, pop-up windows, and confirmation dialogue. When testers try to execute any automation scripts in Selenium WebDriver, the WebDriver runs all the commands on the main browser window. But in case of new alerts or pop-ups, it appears in a new window. To handle these alerts, the Selenium WebDriver shifts the focus to the child windows opened by the alerts. You can use the switchTo().alert () method to switch to an alert. Testers can perform various actions, such as dismissing the alert or accepting the alert.

Autonomous test case design

Autonomous test case design is a unique feature of the advanced Selenium WebDriver techniques. It accelerates test execution by avoiding interdependence between different tests. Tests cannot be executed if they are interdependent and interconnected with one another. Hence, developing autonomous test case designs can remarkably enhance automation testing.  

Parallel testing

The Selenium WebDriver is a popular tool that supports parallel testing. It is a popular test framework that allows the execution of the same test in different environments. Implementing parallel testing significantly reduces the time in test execution. Some of the frameworks available for parallel testing in Selenium include Cucumber, Pytest, and TestNG.

Cross-browser testing

In certain scenarios, you might have to test codes against different browsers, such as Chrome, Firefox, and Safari. When using different browsers and operating devices, cross-border testing can be challenging. The advanced Selenium tool addresses this problem by creating a list of browsers and operating system combinations. The list of combinations is known as the Browser Compatibility matrix, which lowers the testing efforts. It supports multiple browsers, such as Chrome, Firefox, and Safari.

To leverage the true capability of cross-browser testing, you can use a cloud-based platform like LambdaTest. It is a cross-browser digital testing platform allowing you to run tests on 3000+ browsers and OS combinations. Its online Selenium Grid allows it to run browser automation testing scripts on cloud infrastructure. By leveraging the Selenium WebDriver technique, LambdaTest enables you to automate your tests using familiar programming languages such as Java, Python, C#, and more. You can write your test scripts using Selenium WebDriver’s robust API and execute them on LambdaTest’s cloud-based infrastructure.

Uniform Directory Structure

There is no standard rule for directory structure in Selenium automation testing. By having a directory structure that segregates test implementation from the test automation framework, it is possible to improve the grouping of the test code.

Conclusion

To conclude, the blog post gave a sneak peek into the advanced Selenium WebDriver techniques that all testers should know. In the ever-evolving testing world, debugging is an important skill for test automation experts. With Selenium WebDriver techniques, testers can engage in seamless automation testing through its advanced techniques and methods. The advanced technique will support testers in the effective execution of their tests. Each of the advanced techniques described above is effective irrespective of the language used by the testers or automation experts.

Akash Singh

Akash loves to create & share informative ideas and tricks related to the internet, social media, technology, gadgets, and latest trends. In addition, he is passionate about learning and researching new things that excite him the most.